Optimal Rack

For government bike rack installation programs, the optimal rack is:

  • Staple-style rack
  • 27″ long
  • 33″ tall
  • 1.5″ gauge ASTM A53 Grade B Standard Weight Steel Pipe, preferably square stock
  • Brightly painted
  • Installed correctly into concrete

TofinoCoralFor private bike rack installations, a rack made of higher quality materials may be more attractive for installation. Despite higher upfront costs, these racks may have long-term cost savings through reduced maintenance.  One high quality staple rack that we recommend is the Tofino Staple Rack made by Sportworks.

Detailed Rack Recommendations

Proper Locking Technique

The right design encourages proper locking technique — and proper locking technique also determines our recommended rack design.  For a typical bicycle, the proper locking technique is to use one U-lock to lock the bike frame and the front wheel of a bike to the rack’s vertical post, with the bike’s seat post leaning against the opposite side of the bike rack. By locking the front wheel and having a second point of contact at the seat post, the bike is very stable on the rack and less prone to motion and damage if bumped.  If the bicyclist wants added security, the bicyclist may use a cable lock or second U-lock to secure the rear wheel to the bike rack.


Cities should adopt the “staple rack,” also known as the “sheffield rack” or “inverted U rack,” as the default rack design permitted for city bike parking installation programs, new private development projects, and city parks. If businesses wish to purchase and install their own racks, developers and businesses should be allowed to install similarly functioning bike racks that meet similar specifications, such as “circle racks” or “triangle racks.”



The length of the bike rack should be 27 inches long (24-30 inches allowable), measured 18 inches from the ground.

Each rack should provide parking for two standard bikes parked on opposite sides of the rack in opposing directions. At 24-30 inches long (27 inches is preferred), the handle bars of each bike should be able to be “behind” the other bike’s seat. There is no reason to have a longer bike rack than 30 inches.

A rack that is not long-enough will provide inadequate support for a bike, increasing the probability the bike will fall over. The rack should be long enough to provide two points of contact, one point where the front wheel is closest to the downtube, and one point at the seat post.


The height of the bike rack should be 33 inches tall (30-35 inches allowable), measured at the center-point of the bike rack’s length.

At 33 inches tall, the bike rack will be slightly taller than most bikes’ top tubes. This means the height of should be tall enough to (1) be above where a U lock would connect the front wheel and the downtube of the frame, (2) be below most bikes’ handlebars and saddles/seats, and (3) provide a second point of contact near the seat post.

A rack that is too short will provide inadequate support for a bike, with the potential for the bike to fall over. In addition, if the rack is too low, it could become a tripping hazard.

Tube design and thickness

Bike rack should use 1.5-inch to 1.75-inch gauge, ASTM A53 Grade B Standard Weight Steel Pipe, preferably square stock.  The width of pipe is measured on the inside, so a 1.5″ gauge ASTM A53 Grade B Standard Pipe would be about 1.75 inches, and a 1.75″ gauge pipe would be just under 2 inches in total thickness.

  • A rack with tubing that’s less than 2 inches in outside diameter allows for a standard size U-lock to be used with most bikes with rain-guards.
  • Uniformity of rack thickness across all racks in the city is preferred in order to assure similar sized U-locks can be used for bikes across the city.
  • A square shape tube helps prevent bike theft by making it difficult to use a conventional and easily obtained pipe cutter on the tube.


City bike parking installation programs should use  ASTM A53 Grade B Standard Weight Steel Pipe with a hot-dipped galvanization finish per ASTM A123 and hand-ground after galvanization.

The rack should then be primed with a zinc-rich epoxy primer, and powder-coated with a polyester try-glicidylisocyanurate (TGIC) finish that’s 4 mil thick (no less than 3 mil), preferably in a bright color. Developers, businesses, and parks departments may wish to upgrade the appearance of the bike rack by using the more expensive brushed steel or stainless steel materials.

The paint color of the bike rack can establish a clear design uniformity and help create a local color palette. For example, the City of Portland uses the same shade of blue for its racks that its transit agency, Trimet, uses as its primary color for bus stop signs, benches and shelters.


Racks should be installed directly into concrete by one of the following methods:

  • Setting it directly into wet concrete and letting it dry; or
  • With screws that cannot be removed, either with (A) breakaway nuts or (B) a weld on the top of nuts and screws, such that the rack cannot be unscrewed from the concrete. Each of the rack’s posts should have at least one breakaway nut or a weld such that a thief couldn’t unscrew one end of the rack.

In some situations where a property manager may need to occasionally remove a rack, star-patterned screws with a security bead in the middle may be used to secure racks to the sidewalk.

Racks to Avoid & Deny

City agencies, developers, and businesses should not use, and should not the permit the use of, the following racks:

  • Coathanger Racks
  • Wave Racks
  • Spiral Racks
  • Wheel Bender Racks
  • Front-only loading racks
  • Wheel-Well Racks
  • Wooden Racks
  • Bollard or Post Racks
  • Hitch or “Ring & Post” Racks
  • Wheel Chocks
  • Sidewall Racks
  • Art racks that fail to meet recommended specifications.

We recommend against any middle horizontal rail or middle artwork/branding

Middle horizontal rail are occasionally added to staple racks as a security measure, including the City of Seattle.  Other times cities, neighborhood business districts, or businesses will add branding or other artwork to the middle portion of a staple rack.  Both the middle rail and artwork should be avoided when possible.

Because the City of Seattle hasn’t typically used security nuts, breakaway nuts, or a welds to secure its racks to sidewalks, thieves can easily unscrew Seattle’s racks from the sidewalk and steel bikes. To combat this, Seattle’s racks include the horizontal bar which creates a loop within which a person can lock their bike and a thief cannot remove the bike without also breaking the lock.

However, the horizontal rail solves the symptom of the design failure, not the problem: a poorly secured rack to the sidewalk that can be unscrewed from the sidewalk. As a result, bikes continue to get stolen from these racks in Seattle — lock, stock & barrel with the entire rack.  A better solution to the problem is to install the rack with breakaway nuts or by welding the screw & nut so that the rack cannot be unscrewed from the sidewalk.

A few more problems with middle horizontal rails and artwork:

  • The horizontal rails can cause people to improperly lock their bike. The location of the horizontal rail often gets in the way when attempting to use a U-lock to lock a wheel and frame to a bike, especially when a bike has fenders. As a result, people may not be able to, or may choose not to, lock both their wheel and frame to the rack. Or, people may lock below the horizontal bar, thus negating the benefit of the bar.
  • It’s also less space efficient. If a person locks their bike to the middle horizontal rail (instead of the rack’s vertical posts), the bike won’t likely be in the intended location. As a result, it will be more difficult for another person to lock their bike to the rack.
  • It may lead to damage to bicycles. If a bike is locked to the middle horizontal bar, the bike may roll a few feet or lean awkwardly, potentially causing damage to the bike or another bike. A leaning bike may also unnecessarily intrude into the pedestrian space or make the bike rack less space efficient.
  • It’s more expensive. Adding another rail requires more material and labor.

If a middle horizontal rail or artwork is included in the design of the rack, the bar should be placed as low as possible (six inches or less off the ground), to prevent anyone from locking below or to the horizontal bar and prevent the bar from interfering with the ability for a U-lock to go around both a wheel and the frame.


Counties and cities across all departments should adopt a single acceptable bike rack design. This uniformity of design should be applied to transportation departments’ bike parking installation programs; transportation and planning departments’ approval of bike racks installed by developers and businesses; and parks departments’ racks in parks.

Other Bike Rack Specifications


The above recommendations are based, in-part, on a crowdsourced review of bike racks at a bike parking event for design professionals, agency planners, and bicycle advocates held on July 9, 2014. Participants reviewed the racks based on nine factors (Lockability, Security, Stability, Wheel Protection, Space Efficiency, Accessibility, Inclusivity, Visibility, and Attractiveness) using a scoresheet.  The total scores were tabulated and summarized in this spreadsheet.  Further refinement of the optimal rack dimensions was conducted by Brock Howell, Bob Edmiston, Victoria Kovacs, Carl Leighty, and Mike Rimoin in follow-up meetings.